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Pramoedya Ananta Toer Biography - Indonesian Poets

Biography Traces - Pramoedya  Ananta Toer Biography - Indonesian Poets. Pramoedya Ananta Toer was born in Blora, Central Java on February 6, 1925. He is the eldest son in hisB family. His father was a teacher, while his mother's rice trade. Surname is Pramoedya Pramoedya Ananta Mastoer, as recorded in the collection of semi-autobiographical short stories entitled Stories From Blora. Because Mastoer surname (father's name) felt too aristocratic, he removes Java prefix "Mas" from the name and use the "Tur" as his surname. As the eldest son of Sampoerna Oetomo Institute figures, small Pram actually does so brilliantly in lessons at school. Three times was the next grade in elementary school, made his father think of himself as stupid child. As a result, after graduating elementary school who lived under harsh teaching his own father, his father, Mr. Mastoer, refused to register it MULO (junior level).

He also continued his education in the schools telegraph (radio Vakschool) Surabaya at the expense of his mother. Cost for a mediocre school in Surabaya also almost makes Pram failed in practice exams. When it is, without having the equipment, he remained loyal to the test, but only by pretending to busy in the brightest side. However, in general the values ​​of Pram pretty good and he even graduated from school because of the outbreak of World War II in Asia, diplomas were sent from London he never received. then worked as a typist for the Japanese newspaper in Jakarta during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. At the time of Indonesian independence, he followed a military group in Java, and is often placed in Jakarta at the end of the war of independence. He wrote short stories and books throughout his military career and while the Dutch imprisoned in Jakarta in 1948 and 1949. In the 1950s he lived in the Netherlands as part of a cultural exchange program, and when he returned to Indonesia he became a member LEKRA, one left-wing organizations in Indonesia. His writing style changed during that period, as shown in his work Corruption, fiction criticism in the civil service who fall in to the traps of corruption. This creates friction between him and Sukarno government.

During that time, he began to study the abuse of Indonesian Chinese, then at the same time, he began to relate closely with the writers in China. Notably, he published a series of correspondence with the Chinese writers who discuss the history of the Chinese in Indonesia, titled Hoakiau in Indonesia. He is a critic of the government ignoring the Java-centric needs and desires of other areas in Indonesia, and is famous for proposing that the government should be moved outside of Java. In the 1960s he was arrested because of the Soeharto government pro-Communist views Tiongkoknya. His book was banned from circulation, and he was detained without trial in reclaiming off the coast of Java, and finally on Buru island in eastern Indonesia.
He was forbidden to write during his incarceration on the island of Buru, but still manage to write his famous series titled Earth of Mankind, 4 serial semi-fiction novel chronicles the history of Indonesia. The protagonist Minke, a small aristocratic Javanese, reflected on the experience of RM Tirto Adisuryo a prominent movement in colonial times who founded the organization and is recognized by SI Priyayi Pramoedya as the first national organization. His first volume was delivered orally at the sepenjaranya friend, and the rest is smuggled abroad for Australian authors collected and later published in English and Indonesian. Pramoedya was released from custody on December 21, 1979 and get a letter of release is legally not guilty and not involved G30S/PKI, but still under house arrest in Jakarta to 1992, as well as city and state prison inmates to 1999, and is also required to report once a week to East Jakarta Military Command for approximately 2 years.
During that time he wrote a beach girl, a semi-fictional novel based on his own experience of his grandmother. He also wrote The Mute's Soliloquy (1995), an autobiography by writing he wrote for his daughter but was not allowed to be sent, and Reverse Flow (1995). Complete edition of The Mute's Soliloquy translated into English by Willem Samuels, published by Hasta Mitra in Indonesia in cooperation with the Foundation Papyrus in 1999 under the title of The Mute's soliloquy: A Memoir
When Pramoedya get Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1995, reported as many as 26 Indonesian literary figures wrote letters 'protest' to the Ramon Magsaysay Foundation. They do not agree, Pramoedya is accused of being "a spokesman at once the most fierce LEKRA executioner, hit, thrash, slaughter and devour" during guided democracy, inappropriate gifts given and demanded revocation awards were conferred upon Pramoedya. But a few days later, Taufik Ismail as an initiator, news rectify it. He said, not demanding 'revocation', but warned 'who Pramoedya it'. He said, many people do not know the 'dark reputation' Pram first. And Magsaysay award regarded as a faux pas. But on the other hand, Mochtar Lubis even threatened to restore the Magsaysay prize awarded to him in 1958, if Pram still be awarded the same prize.

Lubis said, HB Jassin will return the Magsaysay prize ever received. But, it turns out in the next news, HB Jassin said the other instead of statement altogether Mochtar Lubis. In his opinions on a variety of media, the signers of this petition 26 was a victim of circumstance pre-1965. And they require at Pram, to acknowledge and apologize to every role 'disgraceful' in 'darkest period for creativity' in the days of Guided Democracy. Pram, says Mochtar Lubis, lead oppression fellow artists who do not agree with it.

Pramoedya himself while judging all posts and speech in the pre-1965 was not more than a 'class ordinary polemic' which may be followed by anyone. He denied any involvement in various acts of 'too much'. He also feels vilified, when charged with burning any book. In fact, he suggested that his case was brought to court only if it is material enough. If not enough, take it to an open forum, he said, but with the stipulation I may answer and defend himself, he added. Since the New Order, Pramoedya never got the liberty to voice his own voice, and he has several times openly attacked and beaten in the newspaper. But in exposure artist Joko yell, which had also been a prisoner on the island of Buru, Pramoedya he referred to as 'the clerk'. The clerk job that is meant by Joko yell Pramoedya got the 'job' of officers Buru Island as a handyman ketiknya them.
Even according to Joko yell, Pramoedya better fate than generally prisoners there. Status as a character artist by media distributed internationally, making him a decent living facilities - especially if there are guests from the 'outside' who came Pramoedya would definitely be a 'star'. Pramoedya has written many columns and short articles that criticized the current Indonesian government. He wrote a book in the Virgin Teens Hold Military, written in the style of documentation pitiful Javanese women who were forced to become comfort women during the Japanese occupation. Everything is brought to Buru Island where they suffered sexual violence, ended up staying there rather than return to Java. Pramoedya made his acquaintance when he himself was a political prisoner on Buru Island during the 1970s. Many of his themes touching interaction between cultures, between the Dutch, Javanese kingdoms, the Javanese

general, and Chinese. Many of his writings are also semi-autobiographical, in which he drew his own experience. He continued to be active as an author and columnist. He obtained a Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts in 1995. He has also been considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He also won the Fukuoka Asian Cultural Gifts XI 2000 and in 2004 Norwegian Authors' Union Award for his contributions to the literary world. He completed the trip to North America in 1999 and received an award from the University of Michigan.

Pram romance is also not free from the influence of the reality of poverty is even still plural attacked the writers and artists of today. His first marriage ended in divorce and expulsion Pram from laws' house because his results are uncertain of writing can not support the family. While he was still alive erratic, one day, despite not having any money, he visited an exhibition of the first book in Indonesia and saw one of the women who guard booth caught his attention. He was desperate to come and get acquainted with a woman who was named the Maemunah. Every day he lingered accompany Maemunah sitting in the booth like a guard. Even up when President Soekarno also visited and saw the girl, he jokingly described the scene as "crocodile alligator preliminaries." Firmness and any approach brings results, Maemunah proven was the wife who always remain faithful with him in all their ups and downs until now.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer BiographyUntil the end of his life he was active in writing, although his health has declined due to advanced age and his penchant for smoking. On January 12, 2006, he is said to have two weeks lying ill at his home in Bojong Gede, Bogor, and was hospitalized. According to reports, Pramoedya suffered from diabetes, shortness of breath and his heart weakened. On February 6, 2006 at the Little Theatre Taman Ismail Marzuki, held a special exhibition of the works of Pramoedya's book cover. The exhibition is at the same time a birthday gift for Pramoedya 81st. The exhibition titled Pram, Books and Young Generation presents the covers of the books ever published in foreign countries. There are about 200 books that have been translated into various languages ​​of the world.
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